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Economic studies have documented the economic impacts of diseases caused by graft-transmissible pathogens of grapes, identified profit-maximizing disease management solutions in the field, and assessed returns to public investment of two NCPN centers. 

  • Estimated costs of grapevine red blotch disease were estimated to be as high as $1,100/acre/year in 2015 dollars (or about $68,548 per hectare over a 25 year lifespan of a vineyard) in Napa County, California using a scenario of high initial infection and high quality penalty. If disease prevalence is low to moderate (below 30%), roguing symptomatic vines and replanting with clean vines should minimize losses. A full vineyard replacement should be pursued if disease incidence is higher (generally above 30%) (Ricketts et al., 2017).

  • Estimated costs of leafroll disease with no disease control ranged from $29,902 to $226,405 per hectare over a 25-year lifespan of a vineyard in California. If disease prevalence is between 5 and 10%, roguing symptomatic vines, replanting with certified vines, and controlling for mealybugs can minimize losses to leafroll (Ricketts et al., 2015).

  • Grower costs and benefits of the GLRaV-3 testing, therapy, and distribution program at FPS were in excess of $20 million/yr for the North Coast of California and substantially outweighed the costs (Fuller et al., 2019). The program has a benefit of $70 million for the rest of the grape growing regions in California for a statewide benefit of $90 million annually (Cheon et al., 2020).

  • The NCPN Economic Studies Working Group produced a comprehensive literature review of economic impacts of diseases of specialty crops in the NCPN (Yeh et al., 2019)

  • Economic Studies Reinforce Efforts to Safeguard Specialty Crops in the United States by Fuchs et al., 2021 provides a comprehensive review of economic studies relevant to NCPN.

  • NCPN Factsheet: The Value of Using Clean Plants: A Review of Economic Studies

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